The Maquis announced their existence with the bombing of a freighter supplying the Cardassian colonists of the zone with weapons and the kidnapping of Gul Dukat. Ex-Starfleet commander Calvin Hudson was a prominent commander during the early days of the Maquis. (DS9: "The Maquis, Part I", "The Maquis, Part II")
The Maquis cause was a popular one in the Federation and it grew, bolstered by members of Starfleet. They used several Federation designed vessels, such as the Ju'day-class, which came to be popularised as the Maquis raider and converted Peregrine-class couriers. The Maquis operated in cells to prevent the capture of a few individuals to seriously threaten the entire group.
Following the Klingon Empire's invasion of Cardassia the Maquis were emboldened and made significant gains against the severely weakened Cardassians. During this time the Klingons gave aid to the Maquis, including thirty class 4 cloaking devices to help in their efforts against the Cardassians. (DS9: "Blaze of Glory")
This all came crashing down when the Cardassians joined the Dominion. The Jem'Hadar swept through the DMZ and managed to do in a few days what the Cardassians failed to do in three years, wipe out the Maquis. (DS9: "Blaze of Glory")